Centre for Internet & Society

The Centre for Internet and Society is in the process of mapping international standards specifically around Big Data, IoT and Smart Cities. Here is a living document containing a database of some of these key globally accepted standards.

1. International Organisation for Standardization: ISO/IEC JTC 1 Working group on Big Data (WG 9 )

● Background

- The International Organization for Standardization /International Electrotechnical Commission (ISO/IEC) Joint Technical Committee (JTC) 1, Information Technology announced the creation of a Working Group (WG) focused on standardization in connection with big data.

- JTC 1 is the standards development environment where experts come together to develop worldwide standards on Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for integrating diverse and complex ICT technologies.[1]

- The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) holds the secretariat to JTC 1 and the ANSI-accredited U.S. Technical Advisory Group (TAG) Administrator to JTC 1 is theInterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS) [2], an ANSI member and accredited standards developer (ASD). InterNational Committee for Information Technology standards (INCITS) is a technical committee on Big Data to serve as the US Technical Advisory Group (TAG) to JTC 1/WG 9 on Big Data/ pending approval of a New Work Item Proposal (NWIP). The INCITS/Big Data will address standardization in the areas assigned to JTC 1/WG 9. [3]

- Under U.S. leadership, WG 9 on Big Data will serve as the focus of JTC 1's big data standardization program.

● Objective

- To identify standardization gaps.

- Develop foundational standards for Big Data.

- Develop and maintain liaisons with all relevant JTC 1 entities

- Grow the awareness of and encourage engagement in JTC 1 Big Data standardization efforts within JTC 1. [4]

● Status

- JTC 1 appoints Mr. Wo Chang to serve as Convenor of the JTC 1 Working Group on Big Data.

- The WG has set up a Study Group on Big Data.

2. International Organisation for Standardization: ISO/IEC JTC 1 Study group on Big Data

● Background

- The ISO/IEC JTC1 Study Group on Big Data (JTC1 SGBD) was created by Resolution 27 at the November, 2013 JTC1 Plenary at the request of the USA and other national bodies for consideration of Big Data activities across all of JTC 1.

- A Study Group (SG) is an ISO mechanism by which the convener of a Working Group (WG) under a sub-committee appoints a smaller group of experts to do focused work in a specific area to identify a clear group to focus attention on a major area and expand the manpower of the committee.

- The goal of an SG is to create a proposal suitable for consideration by the whole WG, and it is the WG that will then decide whether and how to progress the work.[5]

● Objective

JTC 1 establishes a Study Group on Big Data for consideration of Big Data

activities across all of JTC 1 with the following objectives:

- Mapping the existing landscape: Map existing ICT landscape for key technologies and relevant standards /models/studies /use cases and scenarios for Big Data from JTC 1, ISO, IEC and other standards setting organizations,

- Identify key terms : Identify key terms and definitions commonly used in the area of Big Data,

- Assess status of big data standardization : Assess the current status of Big Data standardization market requirements, identify standards gaps, and propose standardization priorities to serve as a basis for future JTC 1 work, and

- Provide a report with recommendations and other potential deliverables to the 2014 JTC 1 Plenary. [6]

● Current Status

- The study group released a preliminary report in the year 2014, which can be accessed here : http://www.iso.org/iso/big_data_report-jtc1.pdf.

3. The National Institute of Standards and Technology Big Data Interoperability Framework :

● Background

- NIST is leading the development of a Big Data Technology Roadmap which aims to define and prioritize requirements for interoperability, portability, reusability, and extensibility for big data analytic techniques and technology infrastructure to support secure and effective adoption of Big Data.

- To help develop the ideas in the Big Data Technology Roadmap, NIST is creating the Public Working Group for Big Data which Released Seven Volumes of Big Data Interoperability Framework on September 16, 2015.[7]

● Objective

- To advance progress in Big Data, the NIST Big Data Public Working Group (NBD-PWG) is working to develop consensus on important, fundamental concepts related to Big Data.

● Status

- The results are reported in the NIST Big Data Interoperability Framework series of volumes. Under the framework, seven volumes have been released by NIST, available here:


4. IEEE Standards Association

● Background:

- The IEEE Standards Association introduced a number of standards

related to big-data applications.

● Status:

The following standard is under development:

- IEEE P2413

"IEEE Standard for an Architectural Framework for the Internet of Things (IoT)" defines the relationships among devices used in industries, including transportation and health care. It also provides a blueprint for data privacy, protection, safety, and security, as well as a means to document and mitigate architecture divergence.[8]

5. ITU

● Background:

- The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) has announced its first standards for big data services, entitled 'Recommendation ITU-T Y.3600 "Big data - cloud computing based requirements and capabilities"', recognizing the need for strong technical standards considering the growth of big data to ensure that processing tools are able to achieve powerful results in the areas of collection, analysis, visualization, and more.[9]

● Objective:

- Recommendation Y.3600 provides requirements, capabilities and use cases of

cloud computing based big data as well as its system context. Cloud computing

based big data provides the capabilities to collect, store, analyze, visualize and

manage varieties of large volume datasets, which cannot be rapidly transferred

and analysed using traditional technologies.[10]

- It also outlines how cloud computing systems can be leveraged to provide big-data services.

● Status:

- The standard was relseased in the year 2015 and is avaiabe here: http://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-Y.3600-201511-I .

Smart cities

1. ISO Standards on Smart Cities

● Background:

- ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, established a strategic advisory group in 2014 for smart cities, comprised of a wide range of international experts to advise ISO on how to coordinate current and future Smart City standardization activities, in cooperation with other international standards organizations, to benefit the market.[11]

- Seven countries, China, Germany, UK, France, Japan, Korea and USA, are currently involved in the research.

● Objective:

- The main aims of which are to formulate a definition of a Smart City

- Identify current and future ISO standards projects relating to Smart Cities

- Examine involvement of potential stakeholders, city requirements, potential interface problems. [12]

● Status:

- ISO/TC 268, which is focused on sustainable development in communities, has one working group developing city indicators and other developing metrics for smart community infrastructures. In early 2016 this committee will be joined by another - IEC - systems committee. The first standard produced by ISO/TC 268 is ISO/TR 37150:2014.

- ISO/TR 37150:2014 Smart community infrastructures -- Review of existing activities relevant to metrics: this standard provides a review of existing activities relevant to metrics for smart community infrastructures. The concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities, as defined in ISO/TC 268. ISO/TR 37150:2014 addresses community infrastructures such as energy, water, transportation, waste and information and communications technology (ICT). It focuses on the technical aspects of existing activities which have been published, implemented or discussed. Economic, political or societal aspects are not analyzed in ISO/TR 37150:2014.[13]

- ISO 37120:2014 provides city leaders and citizens a set of clearly defined city performance indicators and a standard approach for measuring each. Though some indicators will be more helpful for cities than others, cities can now consistently apply these indicators and accurately benchmark their city services and quality of life against other cities.[14] This new international standard was developed using the framework of the Global City Indicators Facility (GCIF) that has been extensively tested by more than 255 cities worldwide. This is a demand-led standard, driven and created by cities, for cities. ISO 37120 defines and establishes definitions and methodologies for a set of indicators to steer and measure the performance of city services and quality of life. The standard includes a comprehensive set of 100 indicators - of which 46 are core - that measures a city's social, economic, and environmental performance. [15]

The GCIF global network, supports the newly constituted World Council on City Data - a sister organization of the GCI/GCIF - which allows for independent, third party verification of ISO 37120 data.[16]

- ISO/TS 37151 and ISO/TR 37152 Smart community infrastructures -- Common framework for development & operation: outlines 14 categories of basic community needs (from the perspective of residents, city managers and the environment) to measure the performance of smart community infrastructures. These are typical community infrastructures like energy, water, transportation, waste and information and communication technology systems, which have been optimized with sustainable development and resilience in mind. [17] The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 268, Sustainable development in communities, Subcommittee SC 1, Smart community infrastructures. The objective is to develop international consensus on a harmonised metrics to evaluate the smartness of key urban infrastructure.[18]

- ISO 37101 Sustainable development of communities -- Management systems -- Requirements with guidance for resilience and smartness : By setting out requirements and guidance to attain sustainability with the support of methods and tools including smartness and resilience, it can help communities improve in a number of areas such as: Developing holistic and integrated approaches instead of working in silos (which can hinder sustainability), Fostering social and environmental changes, Improving health and wellbeing, Encouraging responsible resource use and Achieving better governance. [19] The objective is to develop a Management System Requirements Standard reflecting consensus on an integrated, cross-sector approach drawing on existing standards and best practices.

- ISO 37102 Sustainable development & resilience of communities - Vocabulary . The objective is to establish a common set of terms and definitions for standardization in sustainable development, resilience and smartness in communities, cities and territories since there is pressing need for harmonization and clarification. This would provide a common language for all interested parties and stakeholders at the national, regional and international levels and would lead to improved ability to conduct benchmarks and to share experiences and best practices.

- ISO/TR 37121 Inventory & review of existing indicators on sustainable development & resilience in cities : A common set of indicators useable by every city in the world and covering most issues related to sustainability, resilience and quality of life in cities. [20]

- ISO/TR 12859:2009 gives general guidelines to developers of intelligent transport systems (ITS) standards and systems on data privacy aspects and associated legislative requirements for the development and revision of ITS standards and systems. [21]

2. International Organisation for Standardization: ISO/IEC JTC 1 Working group on Smart Cities (WG 11 )

● Background:

- Serve as the focus of and proponent for JTC 1's Smart Cities standardization program and works for development of foundational standards for the use of ICT in Smart Cities - including the Smart City ICT Reference Framework and an Upper Level Ontology for Smart Cities - for guiding Smart Cities efforts throughout JTC 1 upon which other standards can be developed.[22]

● Objective:

- To develop a set of ICT related indicators for Smart Cities in collaboration with ISO/TC 268.

- Identify JTC 1 (and other organization) subgroups developing standards and related material that contribute to Smart Cities.

- Grow the awareness of, and encourage engagement in, JTC 1 Smart Cities standardization efforts within JTC 1.

● Status

- Ms Yuan Yuan is the Convenor of this Working group.

- The purpose was to provide a report with recommendations to the JTC 1 Plenary in the year 2014, to which a preliminary report was submitted. [23]

3. International Organisation for Standardization: ISO/IEC JTC 1 Study Group (SG1) on Smart Cities

● Background:

- The Study Group (SG) - Smart Cities was established in 2013[24] SG 1 will explicitly consider the work going on in the following committees: ISO/TMB/AG on Smart Cities, IEC/SEG 1, ITU-T/FG SSC and ISO/TC 268. [25]

● Objective :

- To examine the needs and potentials for standardization in this area.

● Status:

- SG 1 is paying particular attention to monitoring cloud computing activities, which it sees as the key element of the Smart Cities infrastructure. DIN's Information Technology and Selected IT Applications Standards Committee (NIA (www.nia.din.de)) is formally responsible for ISO/IEC JTC1 /SG 1, but an autonomous national mirror committee on Smart Cities does not yet exist and the work is being overseen by DIN's Smart Grid steering body. [26]

- A preliminary report has been released in the 2014, available here- http://www.iso.org/iso/smart_cities_report-jtc1.pdf

4. ITU

● Background:

- ITU members have established an ITU-T Study Group titled "ITU-T Study Group 20: IoT and its applications, including smart cities and communities" [27]

- ITU-T has also established a Focus Group on Smart Sustainable Cities (FG-SSC).

● Objective:

- The study group will address the standardization requirements of Internet of Things (IoT) technologies, with an initial focus on IoT applications in smart cities.

- The focus group shall assess the standardization requirements of cities aiming to boost their social, economic and environmental sustainability through the integration of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their infrastructures and operations.

- The Focus Group will act as an open platform for smart-city stakeholders - such as municipalities; academic and research institutes; non-governmental organizations (NGOs); and ICT organizations, industry forums and consortia - to exchange knowledge in the interests of identifying the standardized frameworks needed to support the integration of ICT services in smart cities.[28]

● Status:

- The study group will develop standards that leverage IoT technologies to address urban-development challenges.

- The FG-SSC concluded its work in May 2015 by approving 21 Technical Specifications and Reports. [29]

- So far, ITU-T SG 5 FG-SSC has issued the following reports- Technical report "An overview of smart sustainable cities and the role of information and communication technologies", Technical report "Smart sustainable cities: an analysis of definitions", Technical report "Electromagnetic field (EMF) considerations in smart sustainable cities", Technical specifications "Overview of key performance indicators in smart sustainable cities", Technical report "Smart water management in cities".[30]

5. PRIPARE Project :

● Background:

- The 7001 - PRIPARE Smart City Strategy is to to ensure that ICT solutions integrated in EIP smart cities will be compliant with future privacy regulation.

- PRIPARE aims to develop a privacy and security-by-design software and systems engineering methodology, using the combined expertise of the research community and taking into account multiple viewpoints (advocacy, legal, engineering, business).

● Objective:

- The mission of PRIPARE is to facilitate the application of a privacy and security-by-design methodology that will contribute to the advent of unhindered usage of Internet against disruptions, censorship and surveillance, support its practice by the ICT research community to prepare for industry practice and foster risk management culture through educational material targeted to a diversity of stakeholders.

● Status:

- Liaison is currently on-going so that it becomes a standard (OASIS and ISO).[31]


● Background:

- In the UK, the British Standards Institution (BSI) has been commissioned by the UK Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (BIS) to conceive a Smart Cities Standards Strategy to identify vectors of smart city development where standards are needed.

- The standards would be developed through a consensus-driven process under the BSI to ensure good practise is shared between all the actors. [32]

● Objective:

The BIS launched the City's Standards Institute to bring together cities and key

industry leaders and innovators :

- To work together in identifying the challenges facing cities,

- Providing solutions to common problems, and

- Defining the future of smart city standards.[33]

● Status:

The following standards and publications help address various issues for a city to

become a smart city:

- The development of a standard on Smart city terminology (PAS 180)

- The development of a Smart city framework standard (PAS 181)

- The development of a Data concept model for smart cities (PAS 182)

- A Smart city overview document (PD 8100)

- A Smart city planning guidelines document (PD 8101)

- BS 8904 Guidance for community sustainable development provides a decision-making framework that will help setting objectives in response to the needs and aspirations of city stakeholders

- BS 11000 Collaborative relationship management

- BSI BIP 2228:2013 Inclusive urban design - A guide to creating accessible public spaces.

7. Spain

● Background:

- AENOR, the Spanish standards developing organization (SDO), has issued two new standards on smart cities: the UNE 178303 and UNE-ISO 37120. These standards joined the already published UNE 178301.

● Objective:

- The texts, prepared by the Technical Committee of Standardization of AENOR on Smart Cities (AEN / CTN 178) and sponsored by the SETSI (Secretary of State for Telecommunications and Information Society of the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism), aim to encourage the development of a new model of urban services management based on efficiency and sustainability.

● Status:

Some of the standards that have been developed are:

- UNE 178301 on Open Data evaluates the maturity of open data created or held by the public sector so that its reuse is provided in the field of Smart Cities.

- UNE 178303 establishes the requirements for proper management of municipal assets.

- UNE-ISO 37120 which collects the international urban sustainability indicators.

- Following the publication of these standards, 12 other draft standards on Smart Cities have just been made public, most of them corresponding to public services such as water, electricity and telecommunications, and multiservice city networks. [34]

8. China

● Background:

Several national standardization committees and consortia have started

standardization work on Smart Cities, including:

- China National IT Standardization TC (NITS),

- China National CT Standardization TC,

- China National Intelligent Transportation System Standardization TC,

- China National TC on Digital Technique of Intelligent Building and Residence Community of Standardization Administration, China Strategic Alliance of Smart City Industrial Technology Innovation[35]

● Objective:

- In the year 2014, all the ministries involved in building smart cities in China joined with the Standardization Administration of China to create working groups whose job is to manage and standardize smart city development, though their activities have not been publicized. [36]

● Status:

- China will continue to promote international standards in building smart cities and improve the competitiveness of its related industries in global market.

- Also, China's Standardization Administration has joined hands with National Development and Reform Commission, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development and Ministry of Industry and Information Technology in establishing and implementing standards for smart cities.

- When building smart cities, the country will adhere to the ISO 37120 and by the year 2020, China will establish 50 national standards on smart cities. [37]

9. Germany

● Background :

- Member of European Innovation Partnership (EIP) for Smart Cities and Communities DKE (German Commission for Electrical, Electronic & Information Technologies) and DIN (GermanInstitute for Standardization) have developed a joint roadmap and Smart Cities recommendations for action in Germany.

● Objective:

- Its purpose is to highlight the need for standards and to serve as a strategic template for national and international standardization work in the field of smart city technology.

- The Standardization Roadmap highlights the main activities required to create smart cities. [38]

● Status:

- An updated version of the standardization roadmap was released in the year 2015. [39]

10. Poland

● Background:

- A coordination group on Smart and Sustainable Cities and Communities (SSCC) was set up in the beginning of 2014 to monitor any national standardization activities.

● Objective:

- It was decided to put forward a proposal to form a group at the Polish Committee for Standardization (PKN) providing recommendations for smart sustainable city standardization in Poland.

● Status:

It has two thematic groups:

- GT 1-2 on terminology and Technical Bodies in PKN Its scope covers a collection of English terms and their Polish equivalents related to smart and sustainable development of cities and communities to allow better communication among various smart city stakeholders. This includes the preparation of the list of Technical Bodies (OT) in PKN involved in standardization activities related to specific aspects of smart and sustainable local development and making proposals concerning the allocation of standardization works to the relevant OT in PKN.

- GT 3 for gathering information and the development and implementation of a work programme Its scope includes identifying stakeholders in Poland, and gathering information on any national "smart city" initiatives having an impact on environment-friendly development, sustainability, and liveability of a city. The group is also tasked with developing a work programme for GZ 1 based on identified priorities for Poland. Finally, its aim is to conduct communication and dissemination of activities to make the results of GZ 1 visible. [40]

11. Europe

● Background:

- In 2012, the European standardization organizations CEN and CENELEC founded the Smart and Sustainable Cities and Communities Coordination Group (SSCC-CG), which is a Coordination Group established to coordinate standardization activities and foster collaboration around standardization work. [41]

● Objective:

- The aim of the CEN-CENELEC-ETSI (SSCC-CG) is to coordinate and promote European standardization activities relating to Smart Cities and to advise the CEN and CENELEC (Technical) and ETSI Boards on standardization activities in the field of Smart and Sustainable Cities and Communities.

- The scope of the SSCC-CG is to advise on European interests and needs relating to standardization on Smart and Sustainable cities and communities.

● Status:

- Originally conceived to be completed by the end of 2014, SSCC-CG's mandate has been extended by the European standards organizations CEN, CENELEC and ETSI by a further two years and will run until the end of 2016.[42]

- The SSCC-CG does not develop standards, but reports directly to the management boards of the standardization organizations and plays an advisory role. Current members of the SSCC.CG include representatives of the relevant technical committees, the CEN/CENELEC secretariat, the European Commission, the European associations and the national standardization organizations.[43]

- CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Standards for Smart Grids: The aim of this document is to provide a strategic report which outlines the standardization requirements for implementing the European vision of smart grids, especially taking into account the initiatives by the Smart Grids Task Force of the European Commission. It provides an overview of standards, current activities, fields of action, international cooperation and strategic recommendations[44]

12. Singapore

● Background:

- In the year 2015, SPRING Singapore, the Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA) and the Information Technology Standards Committee (ITSC), under the purview of the Singapore Standards Council (SSC), have laid out an Internet of Things (IoT) Standards Outline in support of Singapore's Smart Nation initiative.

● Objective:

- Realising importance of standards in laying the foundation for the nation empowered by big data, analytics technology and sensor networks in light of Singapore's vision of becoming a Smart Nation.

● Status:

Three types of standards - sensor network standards, IoT foundational standards and domain-specific standards - have been identified under the IoT Standards Outline. Singapore actively participates in the ISO Technical Committee (TC) working on smart city standards.[45]

[1] ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information Technology, http://www.iso.org/iso/jtc1_home.html

[2] The InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards, JTC 1 Working Group on Big Data, http://www.incits.org/committees/big-data

[3] ISO/IEC JTC 1 Forms Two Working Groups on Big Data and Internet of Things, 27th January 2015, https://www.ansi.org/news_publications/news_story.aspx?menuid=7&articleid=5b101d27-47b5-4540-bca3-657314402591

[4] JTC 1 November 2014 Resolution 28 - Establishment of a Working Group on Big Data, and Call for Participation, 20th January 2015, http://jtc1sc32.org/doc/N2601-2650/32N2625-J1N12445_JTC1_Big_Data-call_for_participation.pdf

[5] SD-3: Study Group Organizational Information, https://isocpp.org/std/standing-documents/sd-3-study-group-organizational-information

[6] ISO/IEC JTC 1 Study Group on Big Data (BD-SG), http://jtc1bigdatasg.nist.gov/home.php

[7] NIST Released V1.0 Seven Volumes of Big Data Interoperability Framework (September 16, 2015),http://bigdatawg.nist.gov/home.php

[8] Standards That Support Big Data, Monica Rozenfeld, 8th September 2014, http://theinstitute.ieee.org/benefits/standards/standards-that-support-big-data

[9] ITU releases first ever big data standards, Madolyn Smith, 21st December 2015, http://datadrivenjournalism.net/news_and_analysis/itu_releases_first_ever_big_data_standards#sthash.m3FBt63D.dpuf

[10] ITU-T Y.3600 (11/2015) Big data - Cloud computing based requirements and capabilities, http://www.itu.int/itu-t/recommendations/rec.aspx?rec=12584

[11] ISO Strategic Advisory Group on Smart Cities - Demand-side survey, March 2015, http://www.platform31.nl/uploads/media_item/media_item/41/62/Toelichting_ISO_Smart_cities_Survey-1429540845.pdf

[12] The German Standardization Roadmap Smart City Version 1.1, May 2015, https://www.vde.com/en/dke/std/documents/nr_smartcity_en_v1.1.pdf

[13] ISO/TR 37150:2014 Smart community infrastructures -- Review of existing activities relevant to metrics, http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=62564

[14] Dissecting ISO 37120: Why this new smart city standard is good news for cities, 30th July 2014, http://smartcitiescouncil.com/article/dissecting-iso-37120-why-new-smart-city-standard-good-news-cities

[15] World Council for City Data, http://www.dataforcities.org/wccd/

[16] Global City Indicators Facility, http://www.cityindicators.org/

[17] How to measure the performance of smart cities, Maria Lazarte, 5th October 2015


[18] http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/sites/energyefficiency/files/files/documents/events/slideslairoctober2014.pdf

[19] A standard for improving communities reaches final stage, Clare Naden, 12th February 2015,


[20] http://iet.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/sites/energyefficiency/files/files/documents/events/slideslairoctober2014.pdf

[21] ISO/TR 12859:2009 Intelligent transport systems -- System architecture -- Privacy aspects in ITS standards and systems, http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=52052

[22] ISO/IEC JTC 1 Information technology, WG 11 Smart Cities, http://www.iec.ch/dyn/www/f?p=103:14:0::::FSP_ORG_ID,FSP_LANG_ID:12973,25

[23] Work of ISO/IEC JTC1 Smart Ci4es Study group , https://interact.innovateuk.org/documents/3158891/17680585/2+JTC1+Smart+Cities+Group/e639c7f6-4354-4184-99bf-31abc87b5760

[24] JTC1 SAC - Meeting 13 , February 2015, http://www.finance.gov.au/blog/2015/08/05/jtc1-sac-meeting-13-february-2015/

[25] The German Standardization Roadmap Smart City Version 1.1, May 2015, https://www.vde.com/en/dke/std/documents/nr_smartcity_en_v1.1.pdf

[26] The German Standardization Roadmap Smart City Version 1.1, May 2015, https://www.vde.com/en/dke/std/documents/nr_smartcity_en_v1.1.pdf

[27] ITU standards to integrate Internet of Things in Smart Cities, 10th June 2015, https://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2015/22.aspx

[28] ITU-T Focus Group Smart Sustainable Cities, https://www.itu.int/dms_pub/itu-t/oth/0b/04/T0B0400004F2C01PDFE.pdf

[29] Focus Group on Smart Sustainable Cities, http://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/focusgroups/ssc/Pages/default.aspx

[30] The German Standardization Roadmap Smart City Version 1.1, May 2015, https://www.vde.com/en/dke/std/documents/nr_smartcity_en_v1.1.pdf

[31] 7001 - PRIPARE Smart City Strategy, https://eu-smartcities.eu/commitment/7001

[32] Financing Tomorrow's Cities: How Standards Can Support the Development of Smart Cities, http://www.longfinance.net/groups7/viewdiscussion/72-financing-financing-tomorrow-s-cities-how-standards-can-support-the-development-of-smart-cities.html?groupid=3

[33] BSI-Smart Cities, http://www.bsigroup.com/en-GB/smart-cities/

[34] New Set of Smart Cities Standards in Spain, https://eu-smartcities.eu/content/new-set-smart-cities-standards-spain

[35] Technical Report, M2M & ICT Enablement in Smart Cities, Telecommunication Engineering Centre, Department of Telecommunications, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, Government of India, November 2015, http://tec.gov.in/pdf/M2M/ICT%20deployment%20and%20strategies%20for%20%20Smart%20Cities.pdf

[36] Smart City Development in China, Don Johnson, 17th June 2014, http://www.chinabusinessreview.com/smart-city-development-in-china/

[37] China to continue develop standards on smart cities, 17th December 2015, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/world/2015wic/2015-12/17/content_22732897.htm

[38] The German Standardization Roadmap Smart City, April 2014, https://www.dke.de/de/std/documents/nr_smart%20city_en_version%201.0.pdf

[39] This version of the Smart City Standardization Roadmap, Version 1.1, is an incremental revision of Version 1.0. In Version 1.1, a special focus is placed on giving an overview of current standardization activities and interim results, thus illustrating German ambitions in this area.

[40] SSCC-CG Final report Smart and Sustainable Cities and Communities Coordination Group, January 2015, https://www.etsi.org/images/files/SSCC-CG_Final_Report-recommendations_Jan_2015.pdf

[41] Orchestrating infrastructure for sustainable Smart Cities , http://www.iec.ch/whitepaper/pdf/iecWP-smartcities-LR-en.pdf

[42] Urbanization- Why do we need standardization?, http://www.din.de/en/innovation-and-research/smart-cities-en

[43] CEN-CENELEC-ETSI Coordination Group 'Smart and Sustainable Cities and Communities' (SSCC-CG), http://www.cencenelec.eu/standards/Sectors/SmartLiving/smartcities/Pages/SSCC-CG.aspx

[44] Final report of the CEN/CENELEC/ETSI Joint Working Group on Standards for Smart Grids, https://www.etsi.org/WebSite/document/Report_CENCLCETSI_Standards_Smart%20Grids.pdf

[45] SPRING Singapore Supported Close to 600 Companies in Standards Adoption, and Service Excellence Projects , 12th August 2015, http://www.spring.gov.sg/NewsEvents/PR/Pages/Internet-of-Things-(IoT)-Standards-Outline-to-Support-Smart-Nation-Initiative-Unveiled-20150812.aspx

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